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Glossary

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C1S
Coated one side; label paper.

C2S
Coated two sides; coated paper for text, publication, or commercial printing.

CALCIUM CARBONATE
A white pigment used in the furnish or coating of paper. In the furnish, limited to alkaline or neutral internal sizing systems. The calcium carbonate can be obtained from grinding naturally occurring limestone (ground calcium carbonate or GCC) or manufactured as a precipitated pigment (precipitated calcium carbonate or PCC).

CALENDER
A set or stack of smooth steel rolls resting one on top of the other at the end of a paper machine. The paper web is passed between one or more of the "nips" under pressure to control the desired smoothness and thickness of the final sheet.

CALENDER CRUSH/BLACKENING
A term describing the darkening of the intended shade of paper caused by excessive calendering or by the calendering of wet paper.

CALENDER CUT
A cut in the web of paper, usually at an angle to the machine direction, as a result of wrinkles or excess paper accumulating as a fold at the entrance of a calender nip. When the excess suddenly carries through the nip, the force applied in the nip cuts the sheet.

CALENDER FINISHED
Paper and paperboard that has been passed through a calender to improve surface characteristics by application of pressure, friction and moisture.

CALENDER MARKS
Marks imparted by the calender, at a repetitive interval depending on the diameter of the damaged calender roll causing the defect. The defect usually appears as a dull, irregularly shaped area when viewed by low angle light.

CALENDER ROLLS
A set or stack of horizontal cast-iron rolls at the end of a paper machine. The paper is passed between the rolls to increase the smoothness and gloss of its surface.

CALENDAR SCALE
See scale.

CALENDER SPOTS
Marks or spots of a non-uniform size and shape, on or impressed into the surface of paper, caused by foreign material sticking to a calender roll. The defect will repeat, depending upon the diameter of the roll causing the defect; the defect usually appears as a transparentized spot when viewed through the sheet.

CALENDER STACK
See calendering.

CALENDER STREAKS
Are relatively high(er) gloss bands in the machine direction, resulting from non-uniform wet pressing, drying, coating, etc, and these bands gloss more in the calender.

CALENDERING
The equipment (calendar) and process which smoothes and densifies (controls thickness or caliper) a web of paper; rotating rolls under pressure, with the web running between the two; on the paper machine, called the machine calender, with the rolls being of a steel or metal composition; also see supercalendering. Collectively, the calender rolls in the equipment to do the calendering are called the calender "stack."

CALIPER
The thickness of paper expressed in thousandths of an inch. Book paper is usually express as bulk or pages per inch. The thickness of a sheet of paper measured under specified conditions, generally expressed as one-thousands of an inch (0.001"), 11 mils or "points"; measured with instrument called a micrometer or caliper.

CAMERA-READY COPY
As the name implies, this is copy to be printed which is ready to be photographed without further alteration.

CAN
One of the drying cylinders in a paper machine dryer section.

CAPSULES
See microencapsulation.

CAPTION
Text describing an illustration, placed adjacent to it.

CARBON PAPER
Thin tissue, which has been, carbonized (carbon coated) with a hot melt application of a waxy base and pigment, usually black or blue. Used between plies of a multi-part business form (see manifold form), where the tissue or carbon paper gives up a part of the carbonizing material upon a localized application of pressure, thus creating an image on the receiving (under) sheet.

CARBONIZING
See carbon paper, spot carbonizing, and smudge.

CARBONIZING PAPER
Lightweight, unquoted paper made from unbleached chemical and/or mechanical pulps and surfaces coated with a carbon solvent or wax so that it takes up carbon inks and releases them under pressure, duplicating the inked areas being printed.

CARBONLESS PAPER
Copying paper that is coated so that it can be used without carbon coating or interleaved carbon paper. Originally NCR paper (No Carbon Required, an invention of the National Cash Register Company); also called chemical carbonless, as opposed to mechanical carbonless. See spot carbonizing; paper which when used in multi-ply or multiple copy forms (see manifold form), transfers an image by the action of an impact or writing instrument to the sheets below, by means of mated chemical coatings on the front (CF) and back (CB) of the sheets. Also, see self contained paper.

CARTON
A general term loosely used to indicate a folding paper box or a rigid set up box or a fiberboard shipping container. A shipping unit or paper, which usually weighs 125 to 150 pounds.

CASE BOUND BOOK
A book with a hard, stiff cover made of chip board and covered with paper, cloth vinyl or leather material. Also hardbound; a book with a stiff cover, which is made separately, with the sewed book being inserted and fastened (called casing); the stiff cover is called the case.

CASING IN
A section in the bindery operation that applies a book cover to the book block. Also see case bound.

CAST-COATED PAPER
High-gloss coated paper and paperboard with surface characteristics produced by allowing applied coating to harden while in contact with surface of steam-heated, high-polished, chrome-plated drum.

CAST COATING
The coating method in which a wet coating on the surface of a web is cast against a highly polished, rotating, Chromium plated dryer drum; a mirror, high gloss finish results.

CATCHING UP
A condition where the non-image areas of the plate are beginning to take ink. See scumming.

CATALOG PAPER
Term describes a lightweight paper, sometimes coated. Used primarily in mail order catalogs and directories. Grade provides high strength despite its light weight. Basic size: 24 X 36. Basis weight: 9 to 28 lbs.

CB PAPER
Coated Back; the coated donor sheet of mated carbonless paper, used in multiple part forms; the CB coating contains colorless dyes, microencapsulated with a suitable solvent, for controlled release and development of color on the CF receiver sheet; will have the CB coating on the back of all but the last ply of the form.

CELLULOSE
The chief constituent of the cell walls of all plants. All plants contain tissue that, when properly processed, will yield cellulose. Cotton in its raw state contains about 91% and is the purest form of natural cellulose. Other sources for papermaking include hemp (77%), softwoods & hardwoods (57% to 65%), and Kozo (66% to 77%).

CELLULOSE FIBERS
The primary ingredient or raw material in making paper; derived primarily from plant sources, mainly wood, but can be obtained from cotton, sugar cane, or other plant sources. The fibrous material remaining after the nonfibrous components of the wood (or other plant) have been removed by the pulping and bleaching operations. The fibrous material which is the basis of papermaking, obtained from wood pulp, cotton, linen, old rags and recycled paper.

CF PAPER
Coated Front; the coated receiver sheet of mated carbonless paper, used in multiple part forms; contains a color developer in the CF coating; will have the CF coating on the 2nd through the last plies of the form.

CFB PAPER
Coated Front and Back; the intermediate or middle plies of mated carbonless paper, used in multiple part forms. CFB paper has both CF and CB coatings; see CF and CB paper. Also see carbonless paper.

CHAIN MARKS
Also called chain lines or chains. Watermarks in paper that resemble impressions of a chain, running parallel to the grain, approximately one inch apart. These watermark lines are found in laid papers.

CHALKING
A condition in a printed image (or coating) in which the pigment is not properly bound to the paper and can easily be rubbed off as a powder (or flushed off with water); usually an indication of improper ink or coating drying, excessive absorbency of the paper, or insufficient binder.

CHARACTER OF FOLD
See fold quality.

CHEMICAL GHOSTING
See ghosting.

CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
The amount of oxygen required to oxidize organic and oxidizable inorganic compounds of water.

CHEMICAL PULP
Pulp obtained by digesting wood with solutions of various chemicals. The most common chemical processes are sulfate (kraft) and sulfite. See pulping.

CHEST
A storage tank in the paper industry used especially for stock, pulp, furnish, water, white water, etc..

CHILLROLLS
Rolls located immediately after heated or drying ovens on either paper making, coating, or printing equipment, to lower the temperature of the web, and in the case of heat- set inks, to the "setting" temperature of the inks. Can also be called "cooling rolls" or "sweat rolls."

CHIPBOARD
Paperboard made primarily from waste paper used mainly in packaging, especially with a white liner and coating.

CHLORINATED ORGANICS
Carbon based chlorine compounds that are by-products formed when pulp is bleached with molecular chlorine. These compounds, also called adsorbable organic halides (AOX), are environmental pollutants.

CHLORINE
A reactive element that, as a gas, is used in pulp and papermaking for bleaching pulp and water purification.

CHOPPER FOLD(ER)
A fold or folding device which accomplishes a fold in a sheet or signature. The sheet or signature is positioned under a reciprocating chopper blade (non-cutting knife) which then forces it at the point of contact between folding rollers to complete the fold. Also called a knife folder.

CLARIFIERS
Storage tanks in which suspended solids settle.

CLAY
A pigment (kaolin type material) used as a filler (for opacity or smoothness) in the making of paper, or in the paper coating.

CLOSED-CYCLE MILL
A pulp mill concept in which all liquid effluents are recovered, which eliminates water pollution by the mill.

CLOTHING/MACHINE CLOTHING
Paper machine term for the wire, wet felt or dryer felt.

COATED
Paper and paperboards that have been coated with a material such as clay or pigment and an adhesive.

COATED INSERT
A page or series of pages printed on coated stocks and inserted into the book. This is usually done to show colored illustrations that would not print well on the text stock.

COATED OFFSET
A C2S paper with high resistance to picking and suitable for offset printing. Available in glossy and dull, embossed and matte finished, coated offset papers generally do not develop as high a finish as coated book papers because the latter possesses a lower percentage of binder in the coating.

COATED PAPER
Paper with a smooth coating such as china clay to improve its printing qualities; may include a variety of types and finishes. Paper that has been coated with a material to provide printing ink holdout, smoothness, and levelness.

COATING LUMP
Also color lump; a lump of dried coating, most commonly from 1/16 to 1/4 inch in diameter, which has been redeposited on the web of paper, usually from some place on the coating equipment; can even be a splash of coating (coating splash) on the sheet during or after the original coating application.

COATING SCALE
See scale.

COATING SPLASH
See coating lump.

COATING STREAK
A band of lighter or heavier than normal coating material, wider than about 1/8". Steaks are in the machine direction, and appear as more or less transparent than the surrounding area when viewed by transmitted light. Streaks are generally caused by a disturbance to the coating during or after application to the paper web. A "drag mark" is actually a coating streak, created by a foreign material dragging against the coated surface (wet or dry) and creating a disturbance in the coating.

COCKLE OR COCKLING
A surface that is "puckered" or with a rippling effect, intentionally obtained by air drying under minimum tension; simulates hand made, air dried paper; as a cockle finish, is a desirable effect. As an unwanted, localized surface roughness or puckering, cockle is considered a defect.

COLLATING
The gathering of printed, signatures in correct order prior to binding. The interleaving or collecting of flat sheets, signatures, or webs (business forms) in the proper sequence before binding, crimping/ fastening/ gluing, or edge padding; also called "gathering" when dealing with signatures.

COLOR
The color of the coating mixture used to make the paper, which is either white or a specific color. Coating mixture, either white or colored.

COLOR DOWN
Refers to the sequence of applying printing inks to the paper, i.e., the magenta could be the 2nd "color down" in a "four-color process" job.

COLOR FASTNESS
Capacity of dyed paper to retain its original color or to resist fading and change through the influence of heat, light, use, etc.

COLOR LUMP
A hard lump of coating on the surface of a sheet of coated paper. See coating lump.

COLOR MEASUREMENT
1) of papers: An instrumentation reading of color. One such system is by MacBeth, and uses the "color coordinates" of "L,a,b", where "L" signifies a lightness value from black to white, the "a" value ranges from green to red, and the "b" value from blue to yellow; 2) of printing inks: Several color matching "libraries" exist (of from 700 to over 3000 colors each) for printing ink color matching, including the industry standard for spot colors, Pantone (see PMS colors).

COLOR SCANNER
A system and equipment that allows a computer to simulate photographic techniques to accomplish screening for tonal value and color separation, electronically.

COLOR SEPARATION
The process of separating full color originals into the primary printing colors; see "three-color and four-color process"; can be accomplished either photographically or electronically.

COLOR SEQUENCE
The order or sequence in which various colors of inks are printed; also laydown sequence. In multi-color printing, the trapping of each color down depends upon the lower tack of each successive color, i.e., jelly applied to peanut butter, not peanut butter applied to jelly.

COLOR STANDARD
In color measurement, it is the target against which the color of the paper or print is compared for quality purposes.

COMMERCIAL REGISTER
Historically, color printing on which misregister allowable is one row of dots. Can also imply any subjectively acceptable registration and is dependent upon the job being run. See register and hairline register.

COMMODITY OFFSETS
Papers having lower brightness and opacity than premium grades and priced accordingly. These papers are commonly made in large volume and limited weights. They are manufactured to finish, not bulk and are sold to the commercial printing market.

COMMODITY PAPERS
Term used to classify low-end qualities of bond and offset papers.

COMMON CARRIER
Transportation term also known as LTL (Less Than Truckload) carrier used for shipping small items. Examples include Consolidated Freightways, Roadway, Yellow Freight, New Penn, Overnite.

COMPETITIVE GRADES
Similar grades of papers produced by other mills for the same purpose.

CONDITIONING
Allowing paper to sit long enough for it to adjust to the surrounding atmosphere until its moisture content is equal to atmospheric moisture content. This process provides for optimum performance on the press. As a rule of thumb, a minimum of five hours is required, or five hours for each five degrees difference between outdoor and press room temperatures. Laboratory (see TAPPI), paper finishing, or pressroom ambient temperature and relative humidity conditions: paper manufacturers and printers need to provide the same conditioning for the paper, for optimum paper stability and performance, under equilibrium conditions. Also refers to the act of bringing paper over time to the pressroom condition.

CONIFEROUS
Cone bearing trees that do not shed their leaves seasonally, like pine and fir; also known as softwood. Pulps made from this type of tree give cellulose paper making fibers that are long, thus "long fiber" pulp.

CONTACT ANGLE
The angle at which a drop of fluid (like fountain solution or ink) makes with a surface (such as paper) after a specified period of time; usually a measure of the surface or internal sizing, or a measure of the absorption characteristic of the surface being tested for the fluid applied. A low contact angle indicates good or high absorption, while a high contact angle (for example, a 90-degree angle of the edge of the droplet with the plane of the paper) indicates resistance to surface wettability or lack of absorption of the fluid by the surface.

CONTAINERBOARD
Another name for corrugated board used to make boxes and other containers for shipping materials.

CONTINUOUS FORM
Form manufactured from a continuous web, not slit into separate parts prior to its use. Continuous forms may be carbon interleaved, non-carbon interleaved or carbonless. In terms of folding, continuous forms may be folded, zig-zagged (flat pack) or non-folded (roll). Business forms produced in a continuous or web format, which may be cut (see "unit set forms") to individual length or perforated for easy tear to individual length, at the forms manufacturer, or during or after use. May also be used in the continuous format, in roll or fanfold/ accordion form; frequently used on automatic, pin feed units.

CONTINUOUS TONE
A continuous and smooth transition of tones from one tonal value to another, as obtained in photographic prints. See tonal value.

CONTRACT CARRIER
Transportation term referring to carriers a supplier has contract with to deliver freight. Examples include Schneider, Crete, Chezik, Wolding, Smith, and L&H

CONVERSION COATED
Paper which is coated on one or two sides, after it is off the paper making machine. See machine coated.

CONVERTER
A company that specializes in converting reels and sheets of paper and board into packaging or finished goods for sale to the public.

CONVERTING PAPER
Paper changed from its original state into a new product such as envelopes, gummed tape, labels, etc.

COOK
Treating fibrous raw materials with chemicals under heat and pressure to produce pulp for papermaking.

COOLING ROLLS
See chill rolls.

COPIER/LASER PAPER
Lightweight grades of good quality and dimensionally stable papers used in photocopying. When used in either form as a single term, refers to a system and equipment which relies upon electrostatic reproduction principles to either generate an offset lithographic plate, or even the copies themselves, directly from the electrostatic photoreceptor.

COPY
Manuscript or text furnished to the printers or book manufacturers by the publishers. The furnished material (typewritten or line work, pictures, artwork, etc.) to be used in the production of the printed job.

COPY PAPER
Paper used in photocopying machines.

COPYING
The act of producing an image on paper which is a duplication of the image of another document, such as by a photographic or xerographic process, or with carbon or carbonless papers.

CORD
Pulpwood volume measurement indicating a pile measuring 4 ft. x 4 ft. x 8 ft., equaling 128 cubic feet.

CORE
A tube, usually metal, wood, fiberboard, or metal-tipped, on which paper is wound.

CORONA
A device used to place a uniform electrical charge on the surface of an electrostatic/xerographic photoreceptor.

CORRESPONDENCE PAPERS
Writing papers with attractive finishes. Good finish and good writing characteristics are principal qualities.

CORRUGATING
See fluting.

CORRUGATION
See rope.

COTTON FIBER
Prior to 1900, cotton supplied the majority of fiber used in the U.S.A. for papermaking. Today, cotton supplies less than 1% of all fiber used. Domestic paper made with 25 to 100% cotton fibers are classified as cotton papers. One of the finest materials used for paper, cotton is durable and is often selected for certificates and historical documents.

COTTON FIBER PAPER
Paper made using 20% or more cellulose fiber derived from sources of cotton, i.e., garment clippings, cotton linters (short fibers that adhere to cotton seeds) or waste, and originally rags - therefore rag content paper.

COTTON LINTERS
Fibers that adhere to cottonseed after ginning. Used as raw material to produce pulp for cotton fiber content papers.

COUCH MARKS
See shadow marks.

COVER AND CARDSTOCK
Heavy weight paper used for cover and cards.

COVER PAPER
A large category of papers used as a protective covering for books, pamphlets, magazines, catalogs and boxes. A general term applied to heavier basis weight durable printing papers, normally used for outside covers, such as on pamphlets and magazines; measured on a 20" x 26" basic size.

CRACKED EDGE
A slight tear in the edge of a web, which under tension can initiate a web break.

CRASH SEQUENCE
Also called straight sequence; in a multi-ply business form, the usable sequence of the individual plies; the term crash comes from crash numbering or printing, whereby all parts in the form are imaged by impact printing on the top ply of the form, thus printing all the plies in the form. See reverse sequence.

CREEP
In offset lithography, the forward movement (or stretch) of a printing blanket during printing. This can result in "doubling. Can also apply to the movement of the packing under the plate or blanket during printing, causing excessive plate wear.

CREPE PAPER
Low-basis weight paper made from sulfite, sulfate or mechanical pulp and given a crinkly finish by crowding the web sheet over a roll with a doctor blade.

CROSS DIRECTION (CD)
In paper the direction across the grain. Paper is weaker and more sensitive to changes in relative humidity in the cross direction than the grain direction. See grain direction.

CROSSLINE SCREEN
See screen; originally in halftone or tonal photography, a grid pattern with opaque lines crossing each other at right angles, creating transparent squares or apertures through which the dots were produced to form an image giving the illusion of printed tonal values.

CROWN
See roll crown.

CRUSHED CORE
Core out of round or completely collapsed as a result of excessive squeeze or impact.

CURL
Tendency of paper by itself to bend or partly wrap around the axis of one of its directions. Usually caused by nonuniform distribution of strains and stresses throughout the sheet as a result of uneven internal moisture and conditioning. See simple curl.

CUTSCORE
In die-cutting, a sharp-edged knife usually several thousandths of an inch lower than the cutting rules in a die, made to cut part way into the paper or board for folding purposes.

CUT-LINE
A caption placed inside the illustration.

CUT-OFF
In any web printing, the cut length of paper prior to the delivery. The maximum cut-off length is the circumference of the plate cylinder or plate length.

CUT-OUTS
Printed pieces cut into irregular shapes, or with cut out holes (like an envelope window).

CUT SIZE
Fine paper cut to specific end-use dimensions on a paper trimmer, usually of the guillotine or rotary type.

CUT-SIZE PAPER
Refers to any lift of paper, which is 17" x 22", or less in dimensions. Generally, specific to business papers which are generally 8 1/2" x 11", 8 1/2" x 14" (legal size), 11" x 17" or A4A size.

CWT.
Hundred weight - a unit of measurement to denote 100 lbs. for pricing or weight purposes.

CYAN
See process colors.

CYLINDER GAP
On a printing press, the gap or space across the plate or blanket cylinder around its circumference, housing the clamping mechanisms for holding the plate or blanket in place; can be called blanket gap or plate gap.


 
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