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Glossary

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EDGE BLEED
Undesirable coloration at the edge of sheets caused by the action of the cutting knife; in carbonless papers, the image color development at the edges of the sheet or web from the same cutting action.

EDGE GUIDE
Also web guide; a guide on web fed equipment to position it sideways for the operation. On sheet fed equipment, this is called a side guide.

EDGE PADDING ADHESIVE
See padding compound.

EGGSHELL FINISH
Usually refers to book grades of paper that have a finish similar to the surface of an egg. A special felt is used to mark the surface before the paper is dried.

ELECTRON BEAM
See radiation curing (of inks).

ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI)
Business information that is communicated electronically, eliminating the need for paper business forms.

ELECTROSTATIC ASSIST
The use of an electrostatic or electrical charge to aid in the transfer of ink, from the plate in printing (used in gravure printing, to assist in removing the ink from the gravure cells), and in electrostatic printing in the transfer of the toner from the photoreceptor to the paper surface.

ELECTROSTATIC COPIER/PRINTER
Also called xerography or electrophotography. A means by which an electrostatically charged photoreceptor surface is exposed to light to create non-image areas or a latent electrostatic image. The light source is generally a lens mechanism in copiers, and LASER light from a computer, providing variable information, in printers. The non-exposed area, which still has a static charge on the surface of the photoreceptor, defines the image. The remaining electrostatically charged areas attract a "toner" (which has an opposite charge), much like a magnet. An electrostatic charge (such as created by an electron beam) can also be applied directly to a desired image area of the plate, to create a latent image without the use of light. The toner defining the image is transferred to the paper, and is "set or fixed" to the paper surface either by heat (fuser section) or absorption of the fluid portion of a liquid toner into the paper. See photoreceptor.

ELECTROSTATIC COPY PAPER
Smooth-finished, stable, medium-weight bond paper made from chemical pulps. This paper is generally treated with a zinc-oxide coating material and used on dry-type office copying machines.

ELEMENTAL CHLORINE FREE (ECF)
Pulp that is bleached without chlorine gas or hypochlorite.

ELMENDORF TEST
This test is commonly used in paper mills to determine the tear-resistant property of paper. See tear test.

ELONGATION
The property of a paper sheet that allows it to experience a certain degree of stretching.


The overall design or pattern impressed in paper when passed between metal rolls engraved with the desired pattern. Produced on a special embossing machine after the paper has dried to create finishes such as linen. 1) A textured finish imparted to paper by means of raised or depressed engravings on steel rolls, so as to leave a visible surface design on the paper. 2) A raised image or design in the paper surface created by using male and female dies; an unprinted design created in this manner is referred to as blind embossing.

EMBOSSED FINISH
A finish imparted to a web of paper through an embossing machine. The embosser has an upper steel roll with a pattern engraved on it and designed to be steam heated. The bottom roll, whose diameter is customarily twice that of the upper roll, consists of a soft material like cotton or paper. It serves as a backing roll for the paper web, which receives the pattern off the engraved roll. Before paper is embossed, the hard engraved roll is rotated for some time against the soft backing roll under pressure, thereby creating a mat surface in the latter roll. After the paper passes through the embosser, it receives a finish on both sides.

EMBOSSING
1) The process for creating an embossed finish. Also, see reverse embossing. 2) The swelling of a printing press blanket due to its absorbing solvents from the ink; blanket embossing.

EMULSIFICATION
A condition in offset lithography that results from the mixing of excessive fountain solution (water based) and ink (oil based) on the press; generally a contamination of the ink by the fountain solution.

EM
A printer's variable unit of measure, generally consider to be the width of the capital letter "M". Specifically is a square the size of the individual type. Most automatic line and type figures are 1/2 an em in size, or an "en."

EN
1/2 an em. See em.

ENAMEL
A general term for clay coating on papers. Originally designated a coated paper with a high gloss finished surface. Has come to signify any coated paper surface, regardless of gloss.

ENAMEL FINISH
A term applied to a super calendered coated paper to produce a very high level of gloss.

END MARKET
Form used to refer to final disposition or use of paper, such as Envelope Manufacturing, Book Publishing, Commercial Printing, Business Forms or Technical Specialty.

END SHEETS
Also known as end-leaf paper. A white or natural paper used to bind a books contents to its cover. It is usually made of chemical wood pulp in an 80 lb. basis weight. It is known for its high tearing resistance and folding strength and ability to paste smoothly to the book cover (board).

ENGLISH FINISH
A grade of book paper with a smoother, more uniform surface than machine finish. A finish or smoothness level between that of machine-finish and coated super calendered. It is the smoothest of all machine finished papers and is suited well for halftone printing.

ENGRAVED PRINTING/ENGRAVING
A form of recessed printing, as is gravure printing; where the image to be printed is etched or engraved below the non-image areas of the plate. The ink is applied to the plate and the non-image areas are then scraped or wiped clean. Gravure printing is another form of recessed printing, but the ink body and viscosity do differ. Engraved printing normally is accompanied by a slightly raised image area, and a slightly recessed area on the reverse side of the paper corresponding to the printed image.

ENVELOPE PAPER
A general term for papers used in the manufacture of envelopes. Because of the wide variations in use requirements, envelope papers vary in weight, appearance and finish to such an extent that many kinds of paper may be employed.

EPA
An acronym for the Environmental Protection Agency. An abbreviation for the "Environmental Protection Agency" and can be administered by one or more agencies on the national, state, or local level. Generally, these agencies are responsible for everything in the environment around us.

EQUIVALENT WEIGHT
The basis weight of paper expressed in terms of a different basic size. Means of comparing the weights of papers which have different basic sizes and basis weights, strictly a mathematical calculation.

ETCH
In offset lithography, the acidified gum solution used to desensitize the non-image (non-printing) areas of the plate; the "etch" commonly refers to the concentrate used with water to prepare the "fountain solution"; also, the buffered acid solution added to the fountain solution. See fountain solution.

EXTRA BULK PAPER
A book paper which has the highest bulk and lowest ppi at a given basis weight. Other weights are in proportion. These papers have a rough finish and are not recommended in the printing of halftones, illustrations or solids.


 
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