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Glossary

Clicking a letter link will take you to the relevant section.

 
TAB FORMS
Continuous forms.

TABLET PAPERS
A grade of paper used for the manufacture of tablets designed primarily for writing. A grade of paper (usually 16 pound on a 17" x 22"-500 basis) used for the manufacture of writing tablets.

TACK
Sticky property of paper and paperboard adhesive and glue-coating materials. Refers to the internal "stickiness" (cohesion) of an ink; a measurement of the resistance to splitting of an ink film between two separating surfaces; tack is necessary in lithographic inks to insure adequate film splitting at the thin ink film thickness' necessary for this planographic process. High tack does stress the paper surface as the ink film is split from the blanket to the paper surface. If that film splitting stress is sufficient, the paper surface can be disrupted, with pick resulting.

Tack is an ink characteristic that can be measured by instrumentation (such as with an inkometer); other ink fluid characteristics are described by viscosity and length.

TAG
A strong, dense paper stock.

TAIL END HOOK/CURL
Downward curl at the delivery end of a sheet fed offset press, and is a distortion created by the inked paper clinging to the blanket and the stresses of pulling the pa per away from the press blanket. It is noticeable only at the trailing edge of the sheet.

TALL OIL
By-product made from the resins, fatty acids and soap removed during the evaporation of sulfate black liquor.

TAPPI
Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, a professional organization having international membership among the paper allied industries, with the purpose of furthering scientific advancement, research and Technical needs, and establishing recognized standards (Tappi Standards) and testing procedures pertaining to the manufacture and use of pulp and paper. TAPPI standard conditions (see conditioning) refer to standard conditions of temperature and humidity for most paper tests.

TCF
Total chlorine-free pulp bleached without compounds such as chlorine dioxide.

TEAR CROSS DIRECTIONAL
The resistant property of a sheet of paper to tearing, usually measured by the force required to tear a strip under standard conditions.

TEAR INDEX
The force required to tear a sheet of paper under standard conditions.

TEAR STRENGTH
The resistant property of a sheet of paper to tearing, usually measured by the force required to tear a strip under standard conditions.

TEARING-STRENGTH TEST
Strength test of paper designed to show how much force the paper will stand before it tears. A test which determines the tearing resistance of paper; Elmendorf was an original manufacturer of the test equipment, and thus became a generic name for the test.

TELESCOPED ROLL
Progressive roll edge misalignment, concave on one side, and convex on the other; also called "dished" roll for the concave side.

TENDERED
Transportation term referring to a shipment being turned over to a carrier for shipment and delivery.

TENSILE CROSS DIRECTIONAL
Resistant property of a sheet to tensile stress. Paper possesses greater tensile strength in its grain direction.

TENSILE STRENGTH
Resistant property of a sheet to stress under tension. Paper possesses greater tensile strength in its grain direction. Strength property, measured as the force required to "pull" a paper sheet of specified dimensions, to failure; can also be expressed as "breaking length"--usually meters of length required for a web to be hung and break as a result of its own weight (gravity).

TEXT BOOK
A book produced for educational purposes, i.e., elementary, high school, and college textbooks.

TEXT PAPER
A high-quality printing paper with a medium, vellum-like finish. See book papers.

THERMAL AIRLAID
an airlaid manufacturing using special bicomponent fibers as bond fiber to glue pulp together. The airlaid is then run through a dry oven to make the product bulkier and softer for use in hygiene or medical products.

THEMOGRAPHY
Also known as "raised printing" or by the trade named unit "Virkotype"; this process is used in conjunction with a printing unit (letterpress or offset lithography) with slow drying inks. Immediately after printing, the paper is dusted with a powdered compound and the excess which does not adhere to the wet ink film is removed. The ink and powder are then fused and swollen above the level of the paper, by elevated temperature/ heaters. This imparts an embossed or engraved appearance and feel.

THERMOMECHANICAL PULP (TMP)
A high yield pulp produced by a process in which wood chips are softened by steam under pressure prior to a refining stage. These pulps, like groundwood, contain lignin, which significantly reduces the high yield paper's color stability. They tend to fade yellow, and lose brightness when exposed to light and with aging. A pulping process, that involves the hot, pressurized refining of wood chips; using an elevated temperature to assist the mechanical pulping process.

THICKNESS
Measurement of paper in thousandths of an inch. See caliper.

THIXOTROPIC
The property of some inks and coatings of becoming more fluid (lower viscosity) when worked or stirred, and of setting to a less viscous or semi-solid state when at rest. See dilatant.

THREE-COLOR PROCESS
The printing of a full color picture or drawing by the use of only three separate colors: yellow, magenta, and cyan. These are also known as process yellow, process red, and process blue. Also see four-color process.

THROW LENGTH
In the forms printing business, line holes to guide a form on automated equipment, must line-up over a specified length of the continuous form, and from side to side. After printing, both side to side (mechanical condition of the roll-hard and soft edges), and from roll to roll for multi-part forms, alignment of holes is essential for proper subsequent handling and feeding.

TIGHT EDGES
Also known as shrunken edges; these are the result of the sheet having lost moisture at the edges and shrunken to a smaller size. For this to happen, the sheets must be in a pile which prevents loss of moisture in the center of the sheet, which thus remains the same size. The sheets will usually be dished, with the corners raised. This is caused by a low relative humidity of the air to which the paper is exposed.

TITANIUM DIOXIDE
A very bright filler pigment used for its efficiency in increasing paper brightness and opacity. Compared to other ingredients in paper, titanium dioxide is very expensive. Also written in the chemical symbols Ti02; a mineral pigment which can be used in the furnish on a paper machine or in paper coatings; is of small particle size and imparts the greatest opacifying and brightening properties of the pigments used in producing and coating paper.

TONAL VALUE
Gradations of image density. Created: 1) In printing with a single color of ink, by separating the different tonal value areas into dots of varying size. This can create a full range of from less than 5% to 100% ink coverage of the paper area to be printed, depending upon the size of the dots of ink. See halftone. 2) In photography, on a continuous basis, based upon the chemistry and optics of the photographic process.

TONER
The "ink" of electrostatic copying/printing, defining the image area; usually consists of a magnetic ingredient to be attracted to the charged area on the photoreceptor, a colorant material (black or other), and possibly an adhesive that can be melted (or "fused") to hold the composite "ink" on the surface of the paper being printed or receiving the copy.

TONING
See scumming.

TOOTH
A very slight surface texture of paper preferred for dry media such as charcoal and pastel. A term which implies a rough finish to the surface of a sheet of paper.

TOTAL OUTTHROWS
As published by the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries Inc., the term outthrows is defined as all papers that are so manufactured or treated or are in such a form as to be unsuitable for consumption as the grade specified.

TRACKING
The carrying of wet ink from the printed paper, through the printing press. and depositing at least a portion of the ink on parts in the press, with some then being re- deposited (tracked) on subsequent paper being processed.

TRADE BOOK
The segment of book publishing relating to the production of fiction, non-fiction, autobiography, memoirs, juvenile, and special interest books.

TRANSLUCENCY
The ability to transmit light without being transparent. The property of transmitting light, without being transparent.

TRANSPARENCY
Ability of paper to allow light rays to pass through so that objects behind it can be clearly seen.

TRANSPARENT INKS
See process inks.

TRAPPING
The term used to describe the acceptance of transfer of an ink by the surface being printed. Wet trapping refers to the acceptance of an ink film by a previously printed wet ink surface; dry trapping is of course the acceptance by the dry paper or printed ink film surface; see 1) color sequence and tack.

TREATED (paper)
Paper treated mechanically in the paper machine to improve the smoothness and uniformity of the two sides: the paper is rubbed, smoothed and calendered.

TRIM
The dimensions of the widest sheet of paper that can be made on a paper machine, excluding the edges that are normally cut off. 1) Indicates the maximum width of finished paper which can be made on a particular machine. 2) To remove from the edges of a sheet or roll, excess or unneeded paper. 3) The excess of paper allowed around a printed piece for bleed and/or handling and later trimming.

TRIM MARKS
In printing, marks placed on the copy to indicate the edge of the page or sheet, and where to "cut" or trim.

TRIMMED SIZE
The final size of a printed piece after all bleeds and folds have been cut off.

TUB SIZE
In the days of paper making by hand, the sheet of paper was surface sized by dipping the sheet in a "tub" or vat of starch or glue solution. See surface sizing.

TUCKER BLADE
See jaw fold(er).

TUNNEL DRYER
Also "air dryer"; a well-insulated tunnel or large box through which paper is passed for the purpose of drying the paper, coating on the paper, or printing on the paper.

TURN-UP
The completion of a roll of paper from a paper machine or coater, and the starting of a new roll.

TURNING BARS
Metal bars or rollers at a 45-degree angle from the running direction of the web handling equipment (printing press, coater, etc.). Used to turn the web at right angles when feeding from the side or when used in multiples, to actually turn the web over. Often the bars are filled with air and perforated to reduce friction of the web travel. Also called "angle bars."

TURNOVER
A slight tear in the edge of a web or sheet which is folded over during manufacture, converting, or printing; in a pile of paper is often called a "dog ear" from its appearance, when sticking out of the pile.

TWIN WIRE
A Fourdrinier paper making machine with two wires (not necessarily twins of each other in size or length) instead of one, to dewater the furnish and produce a sheet with less two sidedness

TWIN-WIRE FORMER
A multi-ply paperboard machine with two wires, or fabrics, between which the sheet is formed.

TWO-SIDEDNESS
The difference in appearance and printability between a piece of paper's top (felt) and wire sides. In paper, the property denoting differences in appearance, properties, and possibly printability between the top (felt) and bottom (wire) sides.

TYPE FACE
A design of letters of the alphabet intended to be used in combination.


 
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