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1) An oil used as the vehicle. in printing inks which has been bodied by heat (or chemically), or by the addition of gums, resins, or other materials. 2) A thin coating as in (1), applied to a finished printed job for protection or appearance. Also, a "lacquer" or other "overcoating" material such as an acrylic type emulsion can be used for the same function of providing appearance or protection to the printed piece.

Applying varnish or lacquer on a material or a composite. As with the application of a film, varnishing aims to protect the printing and to increase the paper's glossiness, as well as improve its barrier properties.

The fluid or liquid portion of an ink or coating that serves as a carrier for the pigment, adhesives, resins, and additives of the coating or ink formulation, and determines the flow properties of the ink or coating; varnish or oil portion of printing inks.

Smooth, dull finish applied to book and stationery paper surfaces to simulate sheets originally made from calf skin. Vellum is also used to designate heavy weight, translucent drawing of drafting papers. A full, toothy, relatively rough finish surface of uncoated text or book papers; generally intermediate in smoothness to an antique (very rough) finish and a regular or smooth finish.

A term given to papers that are coated with an adhesive and then flock dusted.

Black and white paper print for proofing or display. Halftone possesses full contrast and shows what the copy will look like when reproduced. Also called stat. This is a name registered by Kodak, but much to Kodak's chagrin, the name is commonly used to describe any such material.

A fiber derived from its original source and used for the first time in papermaking.

The measure of the extent to which a fluid resists the force, that causes a fluid to flow. A broad term encompassing the properties of flow, as of an ink or coating - viscosity is measured on an instrument called a viscometer. Other ink characteristics would include "tack" and "length."

An abbreviation for "volatile organic compounds." Since these are OSHA and EPA regulated type materials, they have become of concern in both inks (evaporative solvents that might be used in heat-set, web offset inks) and fountain solutions (alcohol). Alternative materials and processes are being examined for these products so necessary to printing.

A white spot that appears in the solid or heavy area of type as a result of something lifting from the sheet surface.

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